There are 2 significant varieties of optical fibers: plastic material optical fibers (POF) and glass optical fibers – so how are optical fibers made?
1. Materials for optical fibers
Plastic optical fibers are often made for lighting or decoration including fiber optic christmas trees and shrubs. They are also utilized on short range communication applications like on vehicles and vessels. Due to plastic optical fiber’s higher attenuation, they have restricted information carrying bandwidth.
Once we speak about Optical fiber coloring machine systems and fiber optic telecommunications, we actually mean glass optical fibers. Glass optical fibers are mostly made from fused silica (90% at least). Other glass components such as fluorozirconate and fluoroaluminate can also be utilized in some specialty fibers.
2. Glass optical fiber manufacturing procedure
Before we start talking the best way to produce glass optical fibers, let’s initially have a look at its cross area structure. optical fiber cross area is a circular structure composed of 3 levels inside out.
A. The interior layer is known as the primary. This coating manuals the light preventing light from escaping out by way of a trend known as total inner reflection. The core’s size is 9um for solitary setting fibers and 50um or 62.5um for multimode fibers.
B. The center layer is known as the cladding. It provides 1% lower refractive directory compared to the primary material. This difference performs an essential part in total internal representation trend. The cladding’s size is generally 125um.
C. The outer coating is known as the coating. It is actually epoxy cured by ultraviolet light. This layer provides mechanical safety for the fiber and definitely makes the fiber flexible for handling. Without it covering layer, the Optical fiber coloring machine will be very fragile and simple to break.
Because of optical fiber’s severe small size, it is not practical to produce it in just one stage. 3 steps are needed as we explain listed below.
1. Preparing the fiber preform
Regular optical fibers are made by initially building a sizable-size preform, using a carefully controlled refractive directory user profile. Only a number of nations such as US are able to make big volume, top quality fiber preforms.
The procedure to make glass preform is known as MOCVD (altered chemical vapor deposition).
In MCVD, a 40cm long hollow quartz pipe is repaired horizontally and rotated gradually on a unique lathe. Oxygen is bubbled via solutions of silicon chloride (SiCl4), germanium chloride (GeCl4) and other chemical substances. This exactly combined gasoline will then be administered to the hollow pipe.
As the lathe turns, a hydrogen burner torch is moved up and down the away from the pipe. The gases are heated up up by the torch as much as 1900 kelvins. This severe warmth causes two chemical substance reactions to take place.
A. The silicon and germanium interact with o2, developing silicon dioxide (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2).
B. The silicon dioxide and germanium dioxide down payment within the pipe and fuse with each other to make glass.
The hydrogen burner will then be traversed up and down the duration of the tube to deposit the content uniformly. After the torch has reached the end from the pipe, this will make it brought back to the start of the tube as well as the deposited particles are then melted to create a solid layer. This process is repeated until a sufficient level of material has become deposited.
2. Sketching fibers on the sketching tower.
The preform is then installed for the top of a straight fiber drawing tower. The preforms is first lowered right into a 2000 levels Celsius furnace. Its tip gets dissolved until a molten glob drops down by gravity. The glob cools and types a thread since it falls down.
This beginning strand is then drawn through a series of barrier coating cups and UV light curing ovens, finally on to a engine controlled cylindrical fiber spool. The engine gradually draws the fiber through the heated preform. The created fiber diameter is precisely controlled by way of a laser beam micrometer. The running speed of the fiber sketching motor is about 15 m/second. Up to 20km of cable air wiper can be wound onto a single spool.
3. Testing completed optical fibers
Telecommunication applications need very good quality glass optical fibers. The fiber’s mechanised and optical qualities are then checked.
A. Tensile power: Fiber must withstand 100,000 (lb/square inch) tension
B. Fiber geometry: Checks fiber’s core, cladding and covering sizes
A. Refractive index profile: The most essential optical spec xxyjcw fiber’s information carrying data transfer
B. Attenuation: Very critical for long range fiber optic hyperlinks
C. Chromatic dispersion: Becomes more and more critical in high-speed fiber optic telecommunication programs.